Considering the 86-year history of racing, the formula one racing class is one of the most successful genres of all aircraft. In the lifetime of the half-century, a large number of races, pilots and aeroplanes have been seen. Formula 1 racing aircraft named Sharp Nemesis is one of the aircraft classes that has been recognized at the international level and exported from the United States to Europe. The Federation of aeronautics has announced the vehicle as the world’s best competitive vehicle in aviation history. In the community of air racing, the Sharp Nemesis has its inceptions in many wiser head concerns. According to Nemesis Air Racing Team, this aircraft has been one of the most successful in air-racing history. However, the sport is strangled due to the excessive costs and accidents at unacceptable levels.
Participating in the National Championship Air Races requires that the participant must follow the set of rules outlined by the management committee. These rules are revised and updated online. These regulations allow the participants to compete fairly and safely. For this case study, the Nemesis aircraft has been selected and it will be designed by the International Formula One Technical Rules
Figure 1- Source: National Air and Space Museum
The aircraft design for competition purposes requires the development of relevant specifications which have to be achieved by conducting some technical solutions. Full specifications of the aircraft design require the performance parameters to be defined. The whole design of the Sharp Nemesis is dominated by the low signatures and dedicated stealth of the aircraft. The development of an aircraft project requires performance parameters as strong drivers. The performance parameters can be divided into various categories according to the design requirements including Point performance parameters and Mission performance parameters. The aircraft setup of the formula one racing class i.e. Sharp Nemesis will be designed in line with the following specifications.
Research has shown that only 0-200 or C series engineers are suitable for Formula One racing. The contestants are required to use the Teledyne Continental factory and other officially approved parts. Typically, the C series engines are modified by the use of approved parts to ensure the same horsepower as the 0 – 200 engines. The Formula 1 rules allow an engine worker or a builder to replace or modify part of parts of the vehicle but effectively, the basic approval of some of the parts is nullified.
Typically, the design locations include the carburettor as well as the induction system. The original studs are to be used to mount the spider. The height of the spider is to be less than or equal to 3 inches or 26 mm. This height is measured to the top of the case stud flange and from the carburettor mount flange. Exhaust and intake elbows are mounted on the actual manufacturer’s position studs. The factory may choose to weld and remove the intake premier pads to meet the design needs. All exhaust and intake parts are allowed to be smoothened over.
The carburettor can be modified in the areas listed below and only Marvel MA 3 SPA type models are to be used.
For information on carburettor dimensions, the Formula 1 website can be visited which has published a detailed report on dimensions specifications and requirements.
The width of the crankcase can be variable depending on the wear and other factors. This problem can be resolved with the use of shims to adjust clearance volumes. Bolts may be used to strengthen the C series engine crankcase. This can be achieved by drilling through the centre main bearing flange of the crankcase. The crankcase breather should be placed open to the outside.
Pistons of FAA PMA 0-200 and Continental C series type will be allowed by Formula 1. According to the rules, there should be no less and no more than four ring grooves and each groove will carry at least one ring piston. F 1 has placed no restrictions on the use of pistons except for the minimum weight.
Formula 1 allows for smoothing of all external and internal forged and cast parts. Oil lubrication holes, clearance or fit may be performed in the engine to balance the excessive heat. See F1 International technical rules for further details.
The F1 technical specifications should be taken into account when using any FAA PMA or TMC stock camshaft. The manufacturer is allowed to measure the exhaust valve and the intake. The intake reading will ream within the specified profile while starting at 40 deg. BTC. Similarly, the measurement for the exhaust will start after the top dead centre at 95 deg, while staying within the specified profile.
No restrictions are placed on retainer washers, shims, valve springs and spacers. Only recommended and approved matching hardware and continental springs are to be used. The most suited Ignition Systems of electronic or magneto ignition system will be used for the aircraft. There is no restriction on the type of spark plugs and ignition routing and harness.
The point performance parameters are required for the singular items and needed to be satisfied for a fixed aircraft set up at a particular design point. The mission performance parameters are needed when the aircraft setup is considered with the mission context i.e. steady change in the fuel mass. There are comprehensive systems of formulae for both performance categories which have been used and published by NASA. These parameters are illustrated in detail in the following sections (International 2007).
Point performance parameters for Sharp Nemesis are used to define a single payload or fuel situation including
Mission performance parameters are used to present the parameters of the Sharp Nemesis setup performance within the context of aircraft mission
The weights of the parts are to be no more than the limits provided by Formula 1 Technical Rules. Therefore it is expected to lighten the parts to these limits to be able to participate in the racing.
It is recommended to be very careful when ordering oversized pistons to protect the cylinders. Furthermore, specifications for swept volume must be satisfied at all times.
For more information, the Formula 1 website can be visited which has published a detailed report on the weight limits for various parts of the engine.
Available from an onsite source, the standard and pure aircraft fuel shall be used by the manufacturers. The F1 strictly prohibits the mixing of any kind to the fuel, air or fuel/air in the engine. The F1 team may take a fuel sample at any time. The same, however, will be taken from a practical and logical point in the fuel system. The Technical Committee may choose to analyse the sample at the approved facility to determine any discrepancies. Any auxiliary or inaccessible tanks in the system will be made unavailable by obstructing the flow. Starting may be enhanced by the use of certain products that are applied outside of the carburettor inlet scoop.
The oil system operations will be performed in an approved and recommended style. The oil pump system in the oil shall not be supplemented with the use of auxiliary oil systems.
For more information, the Formula 1 website can be visited which has published a detailed report on the engine oil system requirements.
The empty aeroplane will weigh at least 227 kg in weight without oil or fuel added to it. The Pilot should not weigh more than 160 pounds as per the requirements of Formula 1. The manufacturer will be allowed to satisfy the minimum weight requirements by using ballast. The ballasts will be placed within 305 mm of the seat position.
For each operation, the propellers should be fixed pitch. The use of single aluminium alloy propellers is prohibited for any flight in the racing area.
The wing area of no less than 66 square feet will be used. The wing area does not take into account the stall strips and fillets but includes the area displaced by the fuselage. Flaps may be incorporated in the design but the wing area will be measured with these flaps pulled in. The ailerons will be perfectly balanced the in a dynamic manner. The only approved method of achieving static balance will be used.
As per the design and the requirements, the vision of the pilot when wearing all the safety equipment must be able to scan; 5 ° down over-the-nose, 25 ° straight down the non-canard leading edge wing, 45 °C vertical and 270 °C horizontal visibility. The fuel Tank will have the capacity of more than 5 US Gallons. The cockpit will have room for a crash helmet and a parachute, seat belt and shoulder harness as per National Championship Air Races standards. The vertical dimension (outside) at the cocktail shall be more than 76.3 cm, with the centre of gravity being between 8 to 25 per cent of MAC of the wing. The cockpit will be designed to open from both inside and outside
Most of these performance parameters have not been reflected immediately through the performance models of the formula one racing class i.e. Sharp Nemesis. The performance characteristics include the requirement of the specified models through technical solutions. The technical solutions will be sorted out by the evaluation of the effects which are quantifiable i.e. boundary conditions like a drag. The requirements for the required performance of the formula one Sharp Nemesis have to be compatible with the vehicle specifications. Specific formulas and equations are required to develop such aircraft setups. Threfuellingng capability of the specified formula one racing class can be translated to the specific subsystems and refuelling probe which has drag and mass properties, by the integration of the specific performance parameters. The overall configuration of the aircraft can be defined through various restrictions that can be faced during the g designing stages. For such purposese extensive performance models are required which can be used as a guide for formula one racing class (International 2011).
Figure21- Source: National Air and Space Museum