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When citing sources in academic papers and publications, the AMA (American Medical Association) citation style is usually employed in all academic and scientific writing. It follows specific guidelines for proper citation and source acknowledgment.
Implementing the AMA citation style is crucial in academic writing for students and professionals. This comprehensive instruction will provide you with guidelines and instructions required for referencing sources.
Also, you may review our other citing posts that our qualified writers prepared;
Basic Elements of AMA Citation
In research publications and academic papers, AMA citation style is used for referencing different kinds of sources. AMA citation style contains visible rules and instructions. The fundamental parts of AMA citation are as under:
- AUTHOR(s): List author(s) by name, initials with no spaces and periods. If there are more than six writers, list first three writers followed by “et al”
- TITLE: The first word of title, proper noun and also the first word of any subtitle must be capitalized. Italicize the title source of the book and article.
- JOURNAL TITLE (for journal articles): Shorten the italicize journal title by using Journal’s official abbreviation in National library of medicine’s PubMed database.Write the journal title exact if it isn’t abbreviated in PubMed.
- Publishing Date: Provide date in Parenthesis. Mention year of publication with semicolon followed by month abbreviation and day if necessary. For example, (2023; sep 19).
- VOLUME AND ISSUE (for journal articles): In Parenthesis, provide volume number and also provide issue number if applicable followed by colon. For example, 29(5).
- PAGE NUMBER (for journal articles): Provide range of the pages, distinct them by en dash (-). For example, (120-128).
- URL (for online source): Add URL at the end of the citation and enclose the URL in angle brackets (<>). Provide a stable and straight link of the source.
- DOI(Digital object Identifier): DOI is preferred over URL if available as DOI is a permanent link to the source. Use the citation style “doi:10 xxxx/xxxxx”.
In-text citations play an obligatory role in AMA style. Bold numerals are used while referencing another source of information within a text. AMA citation is a superscript number (like this: 4). The number appears at the point where another source is used for the information. The number always appears after the author's name or quotation at the end.
Here is an example of an in-text reference formatted in AMA style:
- Citation Number: In AMA citation style, the purpose of including superscript Arabic numbers is to provide a source of information to the readers. If you include a source (author name) in your text, place the citation number after the author’s name. For example: “According to Bob^1 The Best Life Guide to Managing Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes”.
- Multiple Citations: If there are multiple citations inside the same phrase, use commas to separate the number and for a range of consecutive citation numbers use dash. For example, “^1,3,5-7”
- Citations that are Reused: While referencing the same source multiple times in an article, use the same citation number as it was cited before.
- Secondary Sources: When a source that you want to cite is in another source i-e secondary source, use shortened form(abbreviation) “cited in” and give the real source number. For example:” ‘John’s^2 research cited in watson’s^1”.
- Direct Quotes: While quoting directly from a specific source, provide page number after the citation number for easy access to the source. For example, “According to john’s^3 (p.55)”.
- No Author: If there is no author of the source mentioned which you are citing, provide the title or shortened version of title instead author name. For example: "According to recent studies, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases has increased globally^[2^]."
- Citing single authors:In AMA citation style, citing a source with a single author, you should provide the author's last name followed by citation number in text.It will always come after commas, periods, and quotation marks. For example: “According to WHO^1 cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death globally”.
- Citing multiple authors:When citing a source with up to three authors. Provide the names of all three authors according to the order they appear on the source. Use the word “and” before the last author’s name. Place the superscript Arabic numeral after the last author's name written. For example: “John, Watson and Brown^1 found that….”.For citing more than three authors, name the first author name and then “et al.” which shows there are other authors beyond the first followed by citation number. For example: John et al.^2 When there is a direct quote from the source add a page number to it. For example: John et al.^2 (p.45).
In AMA citation style, all the information and data of the sources used in the page are located at the end of the page in the reference page. The sequence of the references is organized as they are cited in the text. Some sources are used more than once, however, the reference page listed each source once in the list.
A reference list includes precise information of the sources cited in the text, allowing readers to identify and locate the cited sources.It generally contains the author's last name and initials, the source title, details about the publisher or larger publication it was included in, and the publication date.
The specific information and format vary depending on the type of source, as shown in the following tabs.
AMA Book Citation Format
Author Last Name Initials. Book Title: Subtitle. Publisher; Year.
Conrad P, Gallagher EB. Health and Health Care in Developing Countries: Sociological Perspectives. Temple University Press; 1993.
AMA Journal Citation Format
Author Last Name Initials. Article Title. Journal Name. Year; Volume(Issue): Page range. DOI or URL.
Blood fatty acid composition and eating behaviors are related to the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in cholecystectomy patients, according to Shim P, Choi D, and Park Y. 2017;70(4):303–311. doi:10.1159/000475605; Ann Nutr Metab.
AMA Website Citation Format
Author Last Name Initials. Page Title. Website Name. Published Month, Day, Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.
Variations in AMA Citation:
In AMA citation style, citing a variety of sources, there are variations depending on the type of source, whether the source is online or print. Some common variations to apply guidelines in AMA citation are as under:
Citing Print vs Online sources: When referencing print books, Journals, and Newspaper articles in AMA style, use standard book citation structure. Provide author(s) name, title, edition, place of publishing, publisher, and year of publication. There is no need to provide a URL or DOI for print books, Journals, and articles.
Meanwhile for online books, Journals, and websites, include the author(s) name, title, publication date, and year and provide the URL or DOI for the source.
Government Publications: Referencing government publications in AMA citation style, include the author of the government publication or the government agency, if the agency name is long use abbreviations, provide a title, publication date and year, documentation number, and URL or DOI of the source to access others to locate the source.
Conference Proceedings: The citing paper that is presented at a conference includes the conference name, author name, title of the paper, year and date of conference, and location.
Dissertations and Theses: Citing a dissertation or thesis in text requires including details about the author, title, publication date and year, academic institution, and location if necessary.
AMA Style for Different Source Types
AMA citation style includes specific guidelines for different types of sources. Citing different sources in AMA style is as under:
Citation for journal articles: Provide the name of author(s), Title of the article, abbreviated journal title, date and year, and volume(page range).
Referencing for Books and eBooks: Provide the author(s) name if there are multiple authors, separate their names with commas, and add “AND” before the last name mentioned. If there are up to six authors, mention the first three authors followed by “et al”, title of the book, edition, place of publication, and year. If the source is present online, provide a URL or DOI if available.
Online source and webpages: Provide author(s), the page's title, web address, URL or DOI, date of publication, date of Last Update (if any).
Tips For Accurate citation
In AMA citation style, accurate citation is essential for academic writing. It is important to provide proper access to the source of information. Here are some tips for ensuring accurate citations.
Double check Information: Verify the provided details such as; author name, publication date, and page numbers if necessary are accurate. Also, verify the in-text citations used to match the corresponding entries in the reference list.
Handling missing information: Maintaining accurate citation it is important to handle missing information correctly. If the author(s) name is missing, use an “anonymous” instead of the author(s) name. If the source title is not given, provide a summary in brackets. For example, [Untitled book review].
Proper use of italics and abbreviations: When following AMA citation, italics and abbreviations are essential in academic writing. Italicize titles of books, journals, scientific names, species names, statistical symbols, and variables, and other major works when citing them in your text. For example: principle of anatomy and homo sapiens.
Examples of AMA citations:
Following are some examples of AMA style citations for various type of sources;
Journal article with single author:In AMA citation style, citing a source with a single author, you should provide the author's last name followed by a year of publication, J Cardiol. abbreviated journal title, and at last volume and issue number followed by page number.. For example: Smith AB. The Impact of Exercise on Cardiovascular Health. J Cardiol. 2022;30(2):123-135.
Book with multiple authors: When citing a source with up to three authors. Provide the names of all three authors according to the order they appear on the source. Use the word “and” before the last author’s name. Place the superscript Arabic numeral after the last author's name written. For example: “John, Watson and Brown^1 found that….”.
For citing more than three authors, name the first author name and then “et al.” which shows there are other authors beyond the first followed by citation number. For example: John et al.^2
When there is a direct quote from the source add a page number to it. For example: John et al.^2 (p.45).
Website with no author: When there is no author on the website, follow a standard format of AMA citation style. Place the title of the webpage within double quotation work followed by a year of publication, provide the URL, and mention the access date of the webpage. For example: Healthy Eating Guidelines. National Institute of Health. Published 2021. Accessed September 19, 2023.
Plagiarism and Citation
Plagiarism and citation are closely connected to each other. To maintain academic integrity and prevent plagiarism, it is important to understand the differences between plagiarism and citation.
Plagiarism: Act of claiming data, ideas or opinions of other sources without giving credit and attribute to the source of the material. Whether it is intentional or unintentional, plagiarism is unfair and unethical. For example: copying and pasting data from another source without quotation marks or citations.
Citation: Citation is the way you use other sources of information in your text and give credit and attribution to the original source. Citation is an ethical way of writing, which allows the use of other sources for information by giving them proper credit and acknowledgment. For example: In-text citation.
In short, plagiarism involves using other sources of information without mentioning the original source. While citation includes attribution and proper credit given to the original source.
How does proper citation prevent plagiarism?
Proper citation is an essential aspect of preventing plagiarism in academic writing. By choosing recognized citation styles (e.g. APA, MLA, Chicago, AMA) plagiarism can be prevented. Through these methods of citations, you can ensure acknowledgment of sources, showing credibility of work by allowing readers to trace the sources and distinguish between your work and others. Hence proper citation works as a shield against plagiarism in responsible scholarly writing.
AMA citation style vs other styles
AMA citation style is different in several ways from other citation styles( APA, MLA, and Chicago). Some of the distinctions between AMA citation styles.
Contrasting AMA with APA, MLA, and Chicago styles
Author date and superscript numbers in AMA citation style vs APA and MLA:In AMA citation style, superscript numbers are used when sources are cited. References are listed following the sequence as they are listed in the text. Whereas APA and MLA include the author's last name followed by publication date, with corresponding entries in the list.
Abbreviations in AMA vs other APA, MLA and Chicago : Abbreviations are used for Journal titles, standard educational terms, and unit measurements, and the number is included within parenthesis. Whereas APA, MLA, and Chicago style do not have the same level of standardization as AMA in the educational field.
Multiple authors in AMA vs APA, MLA and Chicago: In AMA citation style, if there are up to six authors “et al” " is used after naming the first three authors. While in APA, MLA, and Chicago style, multiple authors are listed as “et al” after the first author.
Online source in AMA vs APA, MLA and Chicago: In AMA citation style, URLs and DOIs are included for citing online sources. Whereas APA AMA and Chicago style also use URLs and DOIs for citing with variations in format.
When to use AMA citation?
AMA citation style is widely used in research and scientific disciplines. AMA is considered for writing papers, articles, reports, and research.
- Writing in scientific fields:AMA citation style is commonly used in writing papers, journals, articles, reports, and for publishing other scholarly writing in scientific fields.
- Coursework and Research:AMA style is generally used by students conducting research, coursework, papers, thesis, and dissertations.
- Preventing Plagiarism: To prevent plagiarism and acknowledgment of the sources including books, journal articles, and websites, AMA provides proper guidelines for the citation of the source.
- Presentations and conferences: AMA citation style is adopted when preparing presentations, posters, and conference materials.
- Thesis and Dissertation: AMA citation style is used by the students for citing their thesis and dissertations.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
What is AMA Citation Format?
The AMA citation Style is comprehensively used in academic and scientific disciplines, assuring consistency, accuracy, and proper attribution and acknowledgment of sources. Which is a proper guideline established by the American Medical Association.
How do I cite multiple authors in AMA?
For citing more than three authors, name the first author name and then “et al.” which shows there are other authors beyond the first followed by citation number. For example: John et al.^2.
What if the source lacks certain information?
For instance, if there is no author on the website, follow a standard format of AMA citation style. Provide the title of the webpage within double quotation work followed by a year of publication, include the URL, and mention the access date of the webpage. For example: Healthy Eating Guidelines. National Institute of Health. Published 2021. Accessed September 19, 2023.
How to Cite in AMA Style| Step-by-Step Guide to Follow
For the proper navigation of AMA citations, here is a step-by-step guide:
Step 1: Understand the Source Types
It’s necessary to be aware of several sources according to what is said in different reference list instances, including books, websites, journal papers, and more.
Step 2: Gather the Necessary Information
Obtain all the necessary details, including author names, titles, publication dates, page numbers, and URLs, for each source you desire to cite.
Step 3: Follow the AMA Format Guideline
Consult the AMA Manual of Style for more information on how to properly cite various source categories. Be very careful with the punctuation, capitalization, and formatting.
Step 4: Organize Your Reference List
Organize a reference list in numerical order, and verify that every citation is accurate and comprehensive. Check out the formatting again and make the required changes.
Step 5: Proofread and Verify
To ensure accuracy and consistency, in depth edit your citations before submitting your work. Check that each citation corresponds to an appropriate in-text reference.
Tips for AMA Style Referencing for Your Paper
Here are the key points to understand AMA reference style;
- Font: Use a common typeface like Times New Roman in size 12.
- Page Numbers: Starting with the title page, place page numbers in the top right corner of each page.
- Margins and Indentation: Retain one-inch margins, and indent paragraphs' starting lines by a half-inch.
- Line Spacing: Do not single-space any of the text.
- Heading Styles: For each level of heading in the text, use constant styling ( like bolding, centering, or a distinct font).
- Acronyms: When using acronyms for the first time, spell them out.
Learning AMA citations is necessary for academics and professionals in the professional field. Precise citation is a key element of academic writing. You may reference sources in AMA style with confidence and efficiency by following the recommendations provided in this detailed tutorial. Always remember that precise citations strengthen the authenticity and dependability of your work in addition to serving as a sign of academic honesty.
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