Get an experienced writer start working
on your paper
Review our samples before
placing an order
Learn how to draft
John is a 17 years old male who is looking for help with his depressive symptoms. He specifically wants to know if psychodynamic therapy would help him to overcome depression.
P - 15 to 19 years teenager with depressive symptoms.
I - Treatment – psychodynamic therapy
C – Placebo = antidepressants
O - Reduced depressive symptoms
How does the use of psychodynamic therapy in comparison to medication help in treating depression in teenagers?
Dash (2018) cites that there are numerous teenagers in different parts of the world that are going through a severe form of depression. The author further cites that depression can occur owing to diverse reasons, especially in the case of teenagers. The reasons can be owing to obesity, peer problems, academic problems, and even long-term bullying. However, there is not much research available in comprehending if depression in teenagers can be cured by psychodynamic therapy in comparison to medications. The purpose of carrying out this research is to fulfill the literature gap of understanding to what extent the psychodynamic therapies have been useful in treating depression in teenagers, instead of using a placebo in the form of antidepressants to treat the condition.
The following are the objectives of this study:
To conceptualize the notion of psychodynamic therapy and medication
To evaluate methods of therapy that are available to treat depression in teenagers
To assess the use of psychodynamic therapy in comparison to medication help in treating depression in teenagers
To provide relevant recommendations for the adoption of methods that can be employed to treat depression in teenagers
The considered design of the study pertains to the use of 2 designs, A Systematic Review Design, and A Quantitative Design. These designs are explained as follows:
A systematic review design pertains to the use of selected articles and reviewing them thoroughly and analyzing the data that would be obtained from the selected articles (Van Herck et al., 2010). According to the study of Witteman et al. (2016), a systematic review is developed after the analysis and combination of data that has been obtained from both published and unpublished research and then summarising all the results that have been obtained. For this study, the systematic review design will pertain to the development of a Prisma framework which would elucidate the initial number of studies that were selected, and after reviewing those studies against inclusion and exclusion criteria the study was either excluded or included for further review. Hence for this study, first inclusion and exclusion criteria will be developed which would allow the researcher to select the desired number of articles. Additionally, a search strategy would also be developed which will allow searching for relevant articles about the field of research. For this study, the search strategy would be using keywords such as “Psychodynamic Therapy”, “Medication”, “Depression in Teenagers”, “Treatment for depression”, “Psychodynamic therapy for depression” and other relevant keywords to search articles. The selected articles would then be analyzed as per their content and data will be extracted and summarised to meet the objectives of this study.
For the implementation of a quantitative design, the researcher will develop a set of survey questionnaires that would be distributed to the concerned participants of this study. The questionnaires would be developed on a 5-point Likert Scale, whereby the respondents will answer the statements as per ‘Strongly Disagree’, ‘Disagree’, ‘Neutral’, ‘Agree’, ‘Strongly Agree’. The questionnaires would be distributed to a sample size of 80 participants through the use of an online medium. The questionnaires will be circulated to the participants who are working in the healthcare industry, which includes doctors, and nurses, and since this study relates to treating depression in teenagers, the questionnaires would also be distributed to the parents of a teenager whose child is suffering from depression, and to teenagers who have been cured and no longer have depression. The distributed questionnaire will allow the researcher to measure the effectiveness of different methods that are employed for the treatment of depression and the difference between the effectiveness of psychotherapy and medication to cure depression. Close-ended questionnaires will be developed for data collection. To analyze the obtained data, the researcher will employ the use of SPSS software to obtain results and summarise the findings of the results.
In research, the methodology describes the methods that have been adopted to ensure the successful completion of the study with the respect to the approach, philosophy, design, and data collection methods. These methods allow the researcher to understand the different concepts of the study under researcher and evaluate the concepts based on theories, philosophies, hypotheses, and objectives (Mackey and Gass, 2015). For this study, the following methodology is being considered.
There are three philosophies available that researchers can adopt in their research according to the nature of the study they are conducting. The research philosophies are as follows: Interpretivism, Positivism, and Pragmatism (Thanh and Thanh, 2015). Thanh and Thanh (2015) explain the philosophy of Interpretivism and describe that the philosophy of interpretivism pertains to the observation of real-world phenomena in a qualitative manner. The researcher needs to analyze the phenomena of the real world objectively to find out patterns from the observations and make inferences from them. It allows for the integration of human interest in the study that is being researched by the researcher. Furthermore, according to the study of Dudovskiy (2017), the author extricates that researchers who adopt the philosophy of interpretivism assume that they have access to reality only through the development of a social construct such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, and instruments.
According to the study by Campbell (2016), many researchers have acknowledged the fact that the research philosophy of positivism is difficult to explain in a succinct and precise manner. This is because there is a vast amount of difference in the research settings that have been adopted by different researchers. Ray (2017) elucidates that, the philosophy of positivism pertains to the view of obtaining factual knowledge which can be gained through the observation of real-world phenomena and enables the researcher to obtain trustworthy and honest data. The role of researchers who adopt the philosophy of positivism in their studies is related to the collection of data and interpretation of the data in an objective manner (Caldwell, 2015). Additionally, positivism is dependent on quantifiable observations which would lead to statistical analysis, and in such studies the researcher is independent and no there are no requirements for human interest.
There are three types of research approaches that can be adopted by the researcher in their study, these are, inductive, deductive, and abductive research approaches. In the study of Liu (2016), the authors explain that an inductive approach or inductive reasoning begins by making observations of the real-world and then theories are proposed at the end of the process of research, which is a result of the observations that have been made. Greenfield et al. (2015) extricate that inductive research pertains to the searching of patterns from the observations that have been made and it facilitates the development of explanations or theories for the identified patterns through a sequence of the proposition. Furthermore, according to the study by Wheatley (2015), at the beginning of research that employs the use of an inductive approach, no theories or hypotheses are applied, and the researcher is free to mold the direction of the researcher to ensure the research being carried out is of high quality. An important aspect to highlight about research that amp employs an inductive approach is that this approach does not disregard the use of theories when formulating objectives and research questions (Hamilton, W., Ying and Leskovec, 2017).
The study of Grinchenko and Shchapova (2020) extricates that researchers that employ the use of a deductive approach, are concerned with the development of a hypothesis that is based on an existing theory, and then work on the development of a research strategy that tests the hypothesis true or false. Zalaghi and Khazaei (2016) describe that a deductive approach means studying a particular aspect of the real world and then generalizing the results that have been obtained. As an example, if a causal relationship is present between one or more variables that can be implied with the aid of a theory or a case example, a deductive approach would test the relationship between these variables to acquire information on general circumstances. According to the study by Spector and Pindek (2016), the development of a hypothesis in research aid the explanation of a deductive approach being adopted that can be consequential from the proposals of the theory. In simpler terms, the deductive approach is concerned with construing assumptions from premises or suggestions.
The two types of research methodology that are available to a researcher are Qualitative methodology and Quantitative Methodology. According to the study of Katz (2015), the author describes that a qualitative method is a research method that is focused on obtaining data through quality means, such as interviews or open-ended questionnaires. Researchers who employ the use of this method in their research are inclined toward not only finding out about “What” people think about a certain phenomenon but also explores on the question of “Why do people think like that (Glesne, 2016). Furthermore, by the study by Skinner (2015), qualitative research is employed by researchers to gain an understanding of the fundamental motives, thoughts, and motivations and it allows for the providence of insights into issues and aids in the development of ideas and hypotheses for research. Silverman (2016) describes that, in qualitative research, the data collection methods that are most commonly employed pertain to the use of unstructured or semi-structured techniques, such as interviews and these data collection methods allow the researcher to discover trends in opinions and views and dive deeper into the issue.
According to the study by Haegele and Hodge (2015), researchers employ the use of quantitative methods to generate numerical data by quantifying the problem and applying arithmetical formulas to obtain factual data. The quantitative method is employed in research because it aids the researchers to quantify attitudes, sentiments, actions, and other distinct variables and simplify the outcomes from a bigger sample of people (Antwi and Hamza, 2015). By the study by Hartas (2015), quantitative research is a methodical examination of phenomena by the congregation of quantifiable data and execution of mathematical methods to gain realistic data based on evidence. The data collection methods that are employed for the collection of quantifiable data pertain to the use of or sending out, online surveys, online polls, questionnaires, etc. The results obtained from these data collection methods can be molded into computable data (McCusker and Gunaydin, 2015).
Antwi, S.K. and Hamza, K., 2015. Qualitative and quantitative research paradigms in business
research: A philosophical reflection. European journal of business and management,
Bell, E., Bryman, A. and Harley, B., 2018. Business research methods. Oxford university press.
Bernard, H.R., 2017. Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative
approaches. Rowman & Littlefield.
Brownson, R.C., Colditz, G.A. and Proctor, E.K. eds., 2017. Dissemination and implementation
research in health: translating science to practice. Oxford University Press.
Caldwell, B., 2015. Beyond positivism. Routledge.
Campbell, T.D., 2016. The legal theory of ethical positivism. Routledge.
Dash, S., 2018. Young adults with depression—are we paying attention?—a review on
depression in teenagers in the 21st Century. Life Research, 1(2), pp.32-39.
Dudovskiy, J., 2017. Interpretivism (interpretivist) research philosophy. Research Methodology.
Glesne, C., 2016. Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction. Pearson. One Lake Street,
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458.
Green, C.A., Duan, N., Gibbons, R.D., Hoagwood, K.E., Palinkas, L.A. and Wisdom, J.P., 2015.
Approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation research: methods,
strengths, caveats, and opportunities. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and
Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), pp.508-523.
Greenfield, B., Bridges, P., Phillips, T., Adams, E., Bullock, D., Davis, K., Nelson, C. and
Wood, B., 2015. Reflective narratives by physical therapist students on their early clinical experiences: A deductive and inductive approach. Journal of Physical Therapy
Education, 29(2), pp.21-31.
Grinchenko, S. and Shchapova, Y.L., 2020. The deductive approach to Big History’s Singularity.
In The 21st Century Singularity and Global Futures (pp. 201-210). Springer, Cham.
Haegele, J.A. and Hodge, S.R., 2015. Quantitative methodology: A guide for emerging physical
education and adapted physical education researchers. The Physical Educator, 72(5).
Hamilton, W., Ying, Z. and Leskovec, J., 2017. Inductive representation learning on large
graphs. In Advances in neural information processing systems (pp. 1024-1034).
Hartas, D. ed., 2015. Educational research and inquiry: Qualitative and quantitative
approaches. Bloomsbury Publishing.
Katz, J., 2015. A theory of qualitative methodology: The social system of analytic fieldwork.
Méthod (e) s: African Review of Social Sciences Methodology, 1(1-2), pp.131-146.
Liebenberg, L., 2017. Editor’s Introduction: Special Issue: Understanding Meaningful
Engagement of Youth in Research and Dissemination of Findings. International Journal
of Qualitative Methods, 16(1), p.1609406917721531.
Liu, L., 2016. Using Generic Inductive Approach in Qualitative Educational Study Analysis. Journal of Education and Learning, 5(2), pp.129-135.
Mackey, A. and Gass, S.M., 2015. Second language research: Methodology and design.
McCusker, K. and Gunaydin, S., 2015. Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed
methods and choice based on the research. Perfusion, 30(7), pp.537-542.
Neta, G., Glasgow, R.E., Carpenter, C.R., Grimshaw, J.M., Rabin, B.A., Fernandez, M.E. and
Brownson, R.C., 2015. A framework for enhancing the value of research for
dissemination and implementation. American Journal of Public Health, 105(1), pp.49-57.
Quinlan, C., Babin, B., Carr, J. and Griffin, M., 2019. Business research methods. South Western
Ray, C., 2017. Logical positivism. A companion to the philosophy of science, pp.243-251.
Silverman, D. ed., 2016. Qualitative research. Sage.
Skinner, D., 2015. Qualitative methodology: an introduction.
Spector, P.E. and Pindek, S., 2016. The future of research methods in work and occupational
health psychology. Applied Psychology, 65(2), pp.412-431.
Thanh, N.C. and Thanh, T.T., 2015. The interconnection between interpretivist paradigm and
qualitative methods in education. American Journal of Educational Science, 1(2), pp.24-
Van Herck, P., De Smedt, D., Annemans, L., Remmen, R., Rosenthal, M.B. and Sermeus, W.,
2010. Systematic review: effects, design choices, and context of pay-for-performance in
health care. BMC health services research, 10(1), p.247.
Wheatley, J., 2015. Identifying latent policy dimensions from public opinion data: An inductive
approach. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion & Parties, 25(2), pp.215-233.
Witteman, H.O., Scherer, L.D., Gavaruzzi, T., Pieterse, A.H., Fuhrel-Forbis, A., Chipenda
Dansokho, S., Exe, N., Kahn, V.C., Feldman-Stewart, D., Col, N.F. and Turgeon, A.F.,
2016. Design features of explicit values clarification methods: a systematic review.
Medical Decision Making, 36(4), pp.453-471.
Zalaghi, H. and Khazaei, M., 2016. The role of deductive and inductive reasoning in accounting
research and standard setting. Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, 8(1), pp.23-37.
Dissertation Proposal Lays Down the Outline of Your Final Dissertation
Get a Dissertation Proposal that matches your requirements, which includes the topic title, research aim and objective, research questions, research gap, literature review, methodology and list of reference papers.
The Dissertation Proposal will be foundation of your final dissertation. It is very important to get this done perfectly to avoid any problems!