Research & Development(R&D) – Concepts & Perception Planning & Benefits
Sustainable development is the process of human architectural development in a way which ensures human needs of the present era are accommodate in an efficient way, and at the same time consider that the future generations may also have access to the world’s resources, through the sustainability of natural systems and the environment. It is a method of infrastructure development which ensures that the materials and resources are utilized through an engineered methodology which is energy efficient, durable, sustainable and productive (Guy and Farmer, 2001).
Much research has been conducted in the development of sustainable architecture, and it has presented business opportunities as well as challenges for today’s architects, developers and engineers. Cities are being developed rapidly throughout the world, which has established considerable pressure on efficient utilization of energy and material resources. Meeting the requirements of the today’s developing world without compromising the future of next generations in terms of resources and environmental balance is considered as sustainable architectures. The main emphases of the subject architecture are as per the following;
The primary research aims of this paper are as follows;
The main objectives of the research conducted are as follows;
Development of the sustainable architecture involves various aspects of the construction industry. These parameters include adaptation of green infrastructure concept, effective spatial planning and layout preparation, sustainable design developments, smart use of materials and various other parameters and activities (Mell, 2007a).
The paper has been completed considering all the above research aims and objectives. Detailed literature has been reviewed to develop understanding of the subject, of which key findings have been presented in this paper.
This section provides a brief literature review on sustainable architecture, covering information such as the history of the concept, current status, future research, development, and benefits.
For the purpose of the paper, it is important to present background of the sustainable architecture’s concept development. A little more than fifty years in the past, the notion of 'sustainable architecture' might have been immeasurable. Surely around then we remained on the edge of the period when the most natural resource devouring structures in the whole history of construction were going to be developed. Over the globe, structures that were dependent on large energy consuming mechanical frameworks inside fixed envelopes, with built-in permanent artificial lighting features, combined with artificial air warming and cooling, started to swap the historical building. These earlier built structures had predominance of daylight and ventilation through natural process, and now they were being replaced (Moore-Colyer and Scott, 2005).
At the same time, this period saw the humble emergence of a counter-perspective of the need for environmental nature of any built structure. The stress was being laid upon securing a better and more direct connection between structures and the natural habitat. This idea is nowadays regarded as 'low-energy', ‘'energy-efficient', ''passive solar’, and 'green' ways of construction. This has developed into a considerable group of works composed by a developing band of paramount architects. Likewise, we find a generous amount of work on its design theory and related literature.
If the previous era of construction may be considered as 'unsustainable' architecture, then we can find that it had its foundation as a result of the Industrial Revolution, in the late 18th century. Mechanical systems for lighting, heating and ventilation started being incorporated in all the new buildings of that time. This era was the start of the ever-increasing consumption of fossil fuels and the corresponding greenhouse gases and global warming issues which the world faced and discovered later.
Before this period, the buildings were naturally lighted and ventilated. So we can say that the history of the new era of 'sustainable architecture' has its roots in the years before the Industrial Revolution.
Today, we have a collection of hypothesis and practice aggregated over the last half century that provides us with generous amount of material for contemporary design. But this should be kept in mind that this short history has its roots in the thought and awareness that prevailed over the longer history (Fabos, 1995). Numerous design lessons which are part of the "sustainable" structures, in reality originate long before the Industrial Revolution. These designs are being made more available through the recent process of providing grants in environmental history.
Also, it is important to realize that we must not disregard the contributions of the architects of the 18th and 19th century towards modern building designs and methods of construction, although we may call the buildings of their times as 'unsustainable'. Their contributions are vital to all the architectural designs and form the backbone of modern day buildings.
With this understanding, we can move forward and design/build better and more efficient buildings. The future of sustainable architecture looks bright. Research is being carried out in all sorts of areas for innovative building designs. In the next few decades, the shape of modern buildings might entirely change (Fabos, 2004).
There is a growing realization among civilization of today that the choices that society makes are going to affect other people and their environment. These choices might not have a sudden impact, but there is a growing realization that in the long-term, everything is going to contribute/integrate and have an influential effect on world we live-in.
At the heart of our economy lies the infrastructure. Our daily life is immensely influenced by the built environment we live in. In any case, the way in which it expends natural resources implies that it is answerable for a considerable percentage of the crucial matter of worldwide and local change in environment (Miyazawa, 2012; He and Zhang, 2011). We are unsustainable in utilizing natural resources for constructing new building and utilizing already built structures. The levels of toxins emitted in the building processes are also an alarming factor.
Therefore, there is a need for the construction industry to adopt more sustainable building designs and construction methods. The aim of the sustainable architecture is to promote the development of structures that meet the needs of the users, stimulate the economy as well as have a positive impact on the environment
Figure 1: Sustainable Development Model (edited using MS Paint)
The terms green building and sustainable building are often thought to have the same meaning, but there is a difference. Green buildings consume lower amount of energy and consequently emit lower amounts of CO2. Whereas the sustainable buildings are those which are not only energy efficient, but which are built with the aim of emphasizing efficiency, long term affordability and quality. These buildings ideally increase comfort and quality of life at each stage of their life cycle, while increasing the economic sustainability of the project and reducing the negative impacts on the environment. Buildings which are incorporated with the sustainable designs and construction consequently minimize the use of raw materials, water, energy, and other resources over their entire life cycle.
There are many factors which contribute to the sustainable architecture of a building (Miyazawa, 2012). Covering all these aspects are out scope of this research; however the major aspects will be presented in this paper. It is worthwhile noting at this point that none of the factors when implemented individually can ensure a sustainable design; rather a combination of these ingredients would result in a sustainable architectural design and the consequent construction of a sustainable building.
Equalizing human interest for food and land with the requirement to secure the world's diminishing natural assets is a worldwide challenge. It is difficult to place accurate economic values on sustainable infrastructure and its development, but is important that organizations support the case for sustained investment.
Although there is strong evidence which suggests that sustainable infrastructure benefits and will keep benefiting many important aspects of environmental and social sustainability, the difficult part is convincing the budget holders that these methods have a greater economic value and advantage.
To demonstrate the net economic value of using sustainable infrastructure, a series of studies have been conducted where economic valuation has been carried out, such as countryside properties environmental, social and ethical report of 2002. These studies suggest that sustainable architecture can indeed make a positive impact on local as well as regional economic position. Job creation, inward investment and new business developments are some of the economic gains as result of sustainable design techniques being implied (Loe, 2000).
Construction costs for sustainable architecture are generally found to be lower. This is mainly because materials used are generally recycled and hence their costs are lower. In practice, there is lack of determination about the long-term impacts of sustainable development on the economy. Long-term simulations of some economic impacts have been started, however these are still in an early stage and not much can be anticipated from them. Particular zones, for example, environmental impacts of sustainable development have been researched more thoroughly.
A few models suggest that sustainable development could prompt long-run development in worldwide GDP contrasted with how things are at present. An example of this could be a higher investment in clean energy production in green homes which results in further technological advances.
There are many social benefits of sustainable infrastructure which directly benefits the local community. The most important one is the promotion of physical health through less harmful materials being used in construction and better air quality due to lower harmful emissions from homes and environment in general (Duhl, 2005).
Due to sustainable designs, the public can save money which was originally spent on the extra amount of heating costs, for example. With less economic burden, the individuals can spend more time in socializing and hence the society benefits as a whole.
Sustainable development and the corresponding move to a green economy can also be achieved through business sector motivating forces that disguise environmental expenses and help environmental friendly sectors to develop. However this is a public policy matter. Governments set the guidelines for business sectors that are aimed at promoting investment that is beneficial for the environment. For instance, lower taxes on buying vehicles that are fuel-efficient vehicles energy systems that are solar powered. This will have social impacts as well; the general public will be oriented to buying these technologies and saving money as well as helping the environment.
The present system of subsidies by the government (implicit or explicit) could likewise be re-modeled to boost sustainable development objectives.
Building structures expend a lot of our natural assets and have an extensive variety of ecological effects. These ecological concerns are a key driver behind the sustainable architecture. Acknowledging what structures are constructed through the use of for example steel, cement, glass, and other materials – structures have a certain amount of "embodied" or stored energy in them. Production of these materials consumes non-renewable assets and consequently has an impact on the environment, and these effects escalate the all the more regularly as these buildings are demolished and reconstructed. Building operations additionally add to the level of environmental pollutants in the UK and other countries (Beatley, 2000).
The major aim behind sustainable architecture is to gain different environmental benefits (TEP 2005:1). Some of the major environmental benefits are presented as below:
The choice of building material is one of the most important aspects of building construction. The priority of the material selection must be based upon the ability of the material to be recycled/re-used and its impact on the environment. The choice of raw materials depends on factors which are considered to be influential from the beginning, from the extraction of the material, to the manufacturing process, it's packaging and transportation, and finally its use and post-use (or reuse) characteristics as an end product. Only materials which meet green standards in all of these individual stages are preferred in sustainable architecture building designs (Bennets et al, 2002).
There would often be choice between different construction materials like steel, wood, concrete, straw bale. Each one has its own advantages. The choice must be wisely made and it should not be limited to choosing just one. We will often see a combination of the materials used in different areas of the building to offer their best properties in those particular sections.
The utilization of safe and healthy materials in development results in better indoor air quality for the inhabitants of the building. The vapour pressure of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is often very high when discharged into the air, particularly indoors. Therefore use of such compounds/materials can have harmful consequences for human health. Their sources of emission include an extensive variety of products incorporating building materials, paints, furnishings, and products for cleaning. Many manufacturers have started producing low and VOC-free materials and products. These should always be preferred over other products available in the market which contain the traditional harmful chemicals. It must be kept in mind that polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containing materials and equipment that should not be used, since the manufacturing process required for their production, their use as well as disposal have proven to be harmful to public health.
There is large amount of information available which provided detailed information on which materials have proven to be the most environmental friendly and their comparisons with other materials. All of this information is readily available, so the sustainability architecture should incorporate the use of the materials as part of the design. In order to further analyze the impact and importance of material selection on the sustainability, the following example as been included in this paper;
Steel frames are generally the most common choice in sustainable frame structure. Steel has various advantages over other types of building materials. Concrete and wood are other common building materials available in UK. Actually, the expense of planning and making the entire steel frame for a house is truly the same as utilizing timber frames. It is a proven cheaper alternative if assuming that it is utilized to construct a house or a multi-storey building.
Steel has the advantage of being an inorganic material which does not crack, bend, twist or split over the long haul. Moreover, steel also does not suffer from being ruined by pests unlike wood, such as parasites or termites. Henceforth, it is essentially agreed that steel is one of the strongest development materials accessible in UK Steel (Buildings in Europe, Multi-storey steel buildings, 2013).
Furthermore, there is the advantage of these steel structures being capable of coping with any future expansion intended for the steel structure. The point when there are any progressions required; all the builder needs to do is to include additional steel frames and boards so as to extend the wall space. Steel developments have the ability to withstand seismic tremor, strong winds, snowfalls and numerous other sort of common calamities. Structural steel also has a much higher strength to weight ratio compared to other building materials. The result of this is that the building is lighter and hence it requires a less extensive and costly foundation (Anderson and Carter, 2009).
Steel frames have an aesthetic appeal which can be further enhanced by bending and rolling the structural steel sections to create non-linear members. The construction is rapid and there is minimal construction site waste. Rapid construction is not achievable with concrete and timber to some extent.
Moreover, steel structures have the capacity to profit mortgage holders and development specialists themselves, as utilizing steel frames can spare a ton of trees and nature's domain. It is a 100% recyclable material, without any losses of quality, whereas timbers are not and they are diminishing quickly. Today, a good design for a home requires it to be strong, cost effective, simple to assemble and environmentally friendly. In this way, in the event that you are intrigued by building or purchasing other home, future steel buildings might be an extraordinary decision acknowledging all the incredible profits that they give. According to Anderson and Carter (2009), and SCI Steel knowledge, the structural steel frame-works used currently in the UK, 86 percent of the steel sections are recycled to produce new steel products after their life cycle, and further 13 percent is reused in their existing state.
According to a study conducted by Tata Steel Europe Ltd, independent industry standard surveys have shown that the steel holds the greatest market share in the construction of multi storey buildings in the UK. The results of the survey are shown as below;
Figure 1: Comparison of market share (Corus Construction, 2014)
The results further show that the use of steel in the construction industry has seen continues growth over the last few decades, in comparison with the concrete. This comparison was completed considering the choice of material adopted by the user for the frames in the multi storey buildings. This could be due to the factors which have been previously described in this case study, strengthening the argument that industry is adapting to more efficient and economical methods of construction.
The architectural industry is required by UK’s Climate Change Act 2008 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to a certain amount by 2050. This amount has been declared to be at least 80 per cent of 1990 levels.
The Carbon Reduction Commitment Energy Efficiency Scheme (CRC) requires companies to provide authentic report on their annual emissions. If the emissions amount is greater than a certain limit, the company will have to pay a fine. So the CRC is a driving factor for companies to reduce their amount of emissions resulting from energy use.
Another law, The Energy Act 2011, establishes that by April 2018, renting out any residential or business premises which has not proved to reach the minimum value for the required standard energy efficiency will be unlawful.
Figure 2: the reduction rate required of emissions of green-house gases; 2009 to 2050 (CCC, 2010)
As it can be seen from the figure 2 above, the green house gas emissions will have to be reduced over the next few decades in order to meet the requirements set by the UK regulation acts (CCC, 2010). Industries are now actively participating in developing methods which can be adopted to shift the technology utilization to more efficient resource system. The following are some of the techniques which can be used to achieve these targets;
There are many ways in which energy consumption of a building can be reduced. This methodology is also referred as ‘Retrofit’ of domestic/commercial buildings. In this method, comparison of the retrofit plans are conducted according to the CO2 emissions, the cost effective relationships are outlined and the life circle of the materials and systems used are analyzed and consequently re-engineered.
One of the effective methods also includes passive cooling and heating, and increasing the reliance of lighting of the building on natural lighting. Energy consideration is most important when designing energy supply systems which are to be installed. Only the most efficient systems/appliance must be selected and it should never be larger than the required capacity.
One example of application of such system which can be quoted here are the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems. The CHP system has offered numerous opportunities for sustainable development as it has been designed to increase the efficiency in the process of production of electricity and heat for the consumers. This technology is gaining much success as it utilizes locally available resources as the fuel source of energy generation; such as biomass and waste, which also reduces the transportation requirements which in return reduces the carbon emissions (Kelly and Pollitt, 2010).
The CHP system integrated with direct heating has gained much success in Europe, where an energy service company has also been established with the name ESCo. The reason why this system is considered to be highly efficient is that it turns lower grade heat energy of the processes into production of steam, hot water and space heating. Despite these advantages, the total share of the CHP system is 6% only in UK’s power generating capacity. It is worthwhile noting at this point that the second most energy efficient country in the world, Denmark, produced 50% of the total energy from the CHP system. Adaptation of such technologies must be considered in order to achieve the target efficiencies.
On a domestic scale, if a family can easily fulfill their requirements with a small sized fridge, they should not buy a large one, even when they can easily afford it. Energy star rating of an appliance is a reliable way of judging its efficiency. Another consideration that can prove to be beneficial for optimizing energy utilization is replacing old appliances with newer, which more energy efficient (Smith, 2001).
Purchasing energy and water efficient system can also help in improving the energy efficiency of the entire building. Water usage should also be minimized within the building, and this can be ensured through various water-efficient devices in the systems where input of water is required. Gray water collection and rainwater catchments are two techniques to supplement the water supply of a building. Both of these methods prove extremely beneficial in improving the water efficiency of the building.
A very effective technique to reducing energy loss from appliances running without anyone needing them is by installing an automated power supply system, which checks if the device is in use and thereby regulates power to it. Solar energy using photo-voltaic cells and small wind energy turbines are becoming more and more available in the market. These technologies greatly reduce the energy dependence on non-renewable resources like fossil fuels, and help make the structure more sustainable and green (Smith, 2001).
There are many construction techniques which can be incorporated in the architectural design to make the structure more environmental friendly, energy efficient, and hence sustainable. The following are some of the most commonly implemented architectural design features which can ensure sustainable design of the building
Air tightness of the building is tested to prevent air loss. Sealing of various types is done from the inside of the building to ensure this.
Advantages of air tight buildings:
Air barrier is defined as the space where creating the barrier between the cooled/heated space inside the building and the unheated/un-cooled space outside is most appropriate, easy and cost effective.
The contractor of the building must administer the development of the building fabrication works through appropriate co-ordination with the staff members and sub-builders to guarantee that the procedure for air tightness is being followed. Correspondence is imperative - if plumbers, electrical experts, and other workers do not know about the air barrier, they can't uphold it. Inspection of the space on a timely basis is essential where the work done by these people may be not be clearly visible and hidden by boards, suspended roofs, boxing, raised floors, and so on.
External insulation of the structure walls is vital for energy conservations, which is also considered to be a pivotal factor in the growing technology implementation of sustainability. This helps prevent heat loss from the structure and consequently save on large amount of heating cost and CO2 emissions (Mendler et al, 2000)
Advantages of EWI systems:
Rock mineral wool system and extended poly styrene are two materials used for external insulation. They both have their unique features, and so the choice depends on the conditions in which they have to be installed.
Internal insulation of the walls is carried out using warm roof, cold roof and internal wall insulation techniques. The advantages are the same as those of external insulation.
The front walls, back walls and side gable of property/complex will need internal insulation, since heat exchange with the surroundings occurs here. Generally, walls to be insulated will be solid walls, and hence wall insulation can be fixed / installed mechanically or adhesively. The insulation material is composite boards, which is made up of a vapour barrier, the insulation material and finished through use of plaster board.
Hot water pipes of the buildings are also protected with insulating material to prevent loss of heat and save energy. Different materials are available for coating onto the pipes are thereby insulate them , such as mineral wool, glass wool, rigid foam, polyethylene, cellular glass and others.
Door and windows are also insulated using several techniques, products and designs. These are not only energy efficient, but also provide good security features. Double glazing is one of the techniques to minimize heat loss through windows. There is air or a vacuum between the two panes of glass. Since air is a poor conductor of heat, and the only heat transfer mechanism left is radiation, heat loss is considerably reduced.
Several types of vents and membranes are available to provide roof ventilation, as well as various kinds of flooring options which minimize energy consumption. All of the products related to ensuring these features in a building are not very expensive if their long term benefits are considered. The amount spent of installing these features will be automatically saved from lower energy bills over the period of few years. Moreover, these features add to the value of the building, and anyone buying a real estate would prefer that the building should have sustainable design techniques incorporated with it.
The results and discussion chapter includes the analyses of all the key information provided in the previous chapter. Key findings are discussed, and important discussions are completed to support the findings. Qualitative and quantitative data is analyzed in this section.
Various case studies and surveys have been completed and the results show that the stakeholders of the architectural industry in the UK have recognized the importance of developments in sustainable buildings. But the actual numbers of sustainably designed buildings in the country still has the capacity to increase; which is due to the fact that many construction companies are not implementing best practices associated with the sustainable developments. The survey conducted by the WWF in coordination with Insight Investment produced the following results;
Figure 3: Sustainability performances of major companies in UK (United Nations, 2002)
Figure 4: Sustainability attributes and consequent influence (United Nations, 2002)
The overall score shows how well the company is responding to the needs of sustainability working practices. The results show that the improved governance strategies can have a direct impact on the environment and society. The results further showed that UK construction industry lag behind the sustainable construction practice as an overall sustainability score of 35 to 47 percent were achieved. This could be due to various reasons, and some of them have been presented as below.
Lack in disclosure of information on sustainability
This is considered to be the critical obstruction to a widespread trend of sustainable building practice. Research completed by Davies et al. (2006) and the Countryside Agency (2006) proposed that promoting the information in the field of sustainable through multi functionality and strategic planning could help resolve these issues.
From literature review and the results analyses, it was clear that education about the standards and ideas of sustainable building is considerably more crucial than specialized training. Therefore it can concluded that there is a requirement for additional education (for building experts, as well as for people in general in question) about what sustainable designs are and why we should strive for it when designing buildings and in everyday life as well. Therefore, the need of having centre of excellence to promote awareness the applications of sustainable architecture and practices has been recommended by the Royal Academy of Engineering in 2012, which may be established to integrate to enhance research, body of knowledge and as well as education and training.
Figure 5: the concept of establishing Centre of Excellence (edited using MS Paint)
The cost of sustainable building alternatives can also develop a barrier to the widespread utilization of sustainable procedures in designing buildings. A general conception is that general public would not demand the sustainable practices unless the procedures save them the cost of construction. It has often been seen that the real expenses of constructing a sustainable design are not as high one might expect them to be, as shown from the research conducted by the Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme, figure 6.
Another important aspect which could hinder the growth of sustainable infrastructure is that the individuals who are in the position to opt for and invest in a sustainable design for the building to be constructed are frequently not in a position to profit from the investment funds later. This could be true for the investors for real estate investors
Figure 6: the capital and operational cost saving potential of building projects during different stages of the design (EEBPP, 1999)
Subcontractors lacking technical understanding
Green structures are often the product of a more combined planning, design, and development process compared to the direct procedure of constructing conventional structures. Sustainable building considerations usually require to be made part of the design and planning process at an early stage of the construction project. Hence it is the owners or the developers and designers who have the most control over what sorts of sustainable components wind up in the arrangements and determinations; yet these won't be achieved if correspondence, interest, or the training is not there on the end of the construction company crew and management.
The thought of a "green group" is normally that all stakeholders, incorporating trades personnel (subcontractors), future residents of the building and maintenance staff be brought on board at an early stage and educated about the project so everybody comprehends, helps, and feels to be a part of the sustainable project.
Accessibility of green materials
New products and being developed through research and design accomplished in various parts of the world. General awareness and adaptation of these materials must be implemented to ensure that these affective materials are utilized in the industry. The fluctuating degrees of consciousness about what items are out there and where they could be found could be resolved the improved these awareness programs and marketing strategies.
Analyzing the results produced by the recent research, it can be concluded that there is a huge potential for further improvements in the field of sustainable architecture. Economical analyses also show that any project which is completed in accordance with optimized design and construction methods can prove to be a viable and profitable practice. There are opportunities in the engineering fields in various industries that can utilize the influential benefits of the new state of the art technologies and practices. It must be further noted that technologies which have been developed and proven to be beneficial are yet o be adopted at much higher scale due to lack of provision of information and hesitation in adopting to change.
It is the role of government to ensure that the issues such as indentified in the previous discussions are resolved and a comprehensive strategy is implemented to ensure wide spread utilization of the green materials and sustainable practices. The government must compel the influential groups to make insightful choices in light of a concern for public health, welfare and safety. This can be achieved through administrative strategy of regulating certain acts of public (obliging and denying certain actions) or non-administrative strategy (providing certain incentives to the people or just encouraging certain acts of public).
Public policies and projects serve to make the good practices more widespread in lesser time than they might spread without government intercession. This action of the government is especially significant when influences in the market are not enough to effectively spread these green practices or are even making hindrances to their spread. The active participation at higher scale is also expected to be play a supporting role in increasing the specialist educational programs which would eventually increase the expertise in the subject field.
Hence it can be concluded that the government has an obligation to intervene where private activities are undermining the benefits to the community. Practical implementation of smart engineering designs, strategic planning, use of sustainable materials, introduction of the new concept methods and directing the use of energy which produces lesser amounts of carbon emissions must be the primary objectives of the governmental strategy to sustain the environment.
The practice of sustainable architecture has developed to suffice that there are currently formal frameworks of execution guidelines, specimen contract specifications, and rules for assessing the engineer and architect experts. Green building projects in UK has been thriving in urban communities because of the recent promotion by local government and officials, engineers, and local leaders. This is a good sign since green building methods and sustainable development process permit individuals to envision an alternate approach to live. However, there is much room for further developments and the following of sustainable practices must be encouraged in the near future.
Efforts by supporters of green architecture have forced city organizers and different authorities to consider / realize that there is a need to reduce carbon emissions to an acceptable level in the next few decades. The Government has implemented policies which specifically target the reduction of emissions and therefore much research and developments are in line to accommodate these changes.
The era of organizers, architects and designers working today have an immensely important obligation natural resources are on the edge of being afflicted by a non-reversible damage and when social separation is at history's worst. A wave of change of sustainable architecture around the country will contribute to sustainable development and will have a positive effect on the quality-of-life for those to come.
If benefits of sustainable architecture are to be maximized, its integration with the local environment is crucial. Sustainable architecture is considered to provide facilities for the people who live amongst it. Only if the idea and activities conducted to achieve more sustainable architecture design are supported by the whole local community, can the real potential of sustainable architecture be realized. Therefore, establishment of central body of excellence is recommended to excel in the research, operations and implementations of sustainable architecture.
The following table below show the identifications used for results and discussion related to this research paper
Responsibilities and role
bankers, investors and other financial service providers
Providing capital costs and resources to used for infrastructure developments
Ethically acceptable investments with consideration of social and environmental impact
Planners, developers, land-owners and infrastructure regulators
Control of development and building /site regulations
Application of polices with respect to social, economical and environmental parameters
Engineers, designers, architects and other technical responsible(s)
Layout planning, infrastructure and building design and developments
Applications of sustainable design and planning.
Vendors, traders and contractors
Site development, construction and development of projects
Sustainable practices, environmental protect ion, and safety of workers
Suppliers of materials, informers of the new equipments and materials
Sustainable resources / materials providers. Environmentally and economically efficient products suppliers
Residents and users of the resource / complex
Selector of the sustainable residence
Trader and industrial / educational associations
Policy making and its presentation
Preparation of the most viable and application sustainable practices, and consequent presentation of these policies to the local government bodies / departments
These identification patterns were used in order to understand the responsibilities and importance of each stakeholder. The results obtained were directly obtained from the research papers for which references were provided with each presentation. For the multiple resources which were analyzed, only the most relevant and in-line with the concept of the paper’s results were selected to include in this paper. The discussions and the recommended line of action proposed in the paper were self generated through comprehensive understanding of the topic