Get an experienced writer start working
on your paper
Review our samples before
placing an order
Learn how to draft
One of the fastest-growing and biggest sectors is tourism which is considered a vulnerable industry and therefore the tourism industry gets the most affected due to internal or external stresses (Liu, Pennington-Gray, and Krieger, 2016). These factors can be changed in weather conditions, increase in taxes, the introduction of new technologies, cultural and environmental challenges, etc. In this regard, the recent outbreak of coronavirus (COVID-19) has greater impacted the various countries' tourism sector as a whole (Hoque et al., 2020). Moreover, the pandemic has caused a serious global crisis with the cancellations of public events, trips, temporary employment repercussions, etc. Similarly, the hotel and hospitality industry has faced a hard hit due to the spread of the coronavirus, especially during the Lunar New Year which is one of the busiest seasons for traveling in the hotel industry (Honerkamp, 2020).
The main aim of the study is to assess the effects of viruses on the hospitality and tourism industry.
To meet the main aim, the following objectives have been devised:
To study the potential factors that are pertinent to a virus that can affect a country’s hospitality and tourism industry
To assess the negative influence of a medical virus upon a country’s hospitality and tourism industry
To provide recommendations with regards to the measures a country can take to avoid being impacted by medical viruses, especially for the hospitality and tourism industry.
The tourism industry is facing challenges and is entering a crisis due to the worldwide pandemic of COVID-19. Furthermore, according to the study by Bai et al. (2020), the extent and the scope of COVID-19 are still unknown. Similarly, the Ramelli and Wagner (2020) study mention that COVID-19 has already damaged the stock market which can affect the major sectors and industries. The study of Chinazzi et al. (2020) states that with travel restrictions in the place, the industry of tourism and hospitality is suffering from a major financial constraint. Furthermore, the authorities are also comparing the global pandemic of COVID-19 to SARS or H1N1 which also harmed the tourism and hospitality industry.
The study of Hoque et al. (2020) discusses that the tourism industry of countries such as China can be considered as the most affected due to COVID-19 because the tourism industry of China has a contribution of 11% in their overall GDP growth which accounted for $1.35 trillion in total revenue. Therefore, with such a damaging impact on the economy of different nations and the tourism industry, the UNWTO and WHO have also suggested the tourism industry create a measured and consistent approach regarding the tourism guidelines for the safety and security of public health. Therefore, the study identifies that the spread of a global pandemic can cause severe damage to the tourism industry.
The purpose of this study is to assess the research area which revolves around the effects of the virus on the hospitality and tourism industry. Furthermore, the study of Carroll et al. (2015) also states that measuring the effects and damage of the virus can be difficult. Similarly, the study by Wang et al. (2020) mentions that preparing and designing a contingency plan for the reduction of the virus also requires significant time. Therefore, the gap identified in the study is the limited literature related to the effects of the virus on the hospitality and tourism industry.
According to the study by Liu, Pennington-Gray, and Krieger (2016), the literature on crisis management related to tourism is limited. Furthermore, the majority of the studies in the literature focus on the spread of viruses in a specific area or a country and often fail to mention its effects on the industry of tourism and hospitality. As per the study by Nokso-Koivisto, Marom, and Chonmaitree (2015) understanding the risks associated with the viruses and their impact on different industries is imperative. Therefore, the study aims to assess the virus and its impact on the hospitality and tourism industry.
The study regarding the effects of the virus on the hospitality and tourism industry can be considered as significant because it would enable the researchers to analyze the effects of the virus more descriptively and effectively. Furthermore, the research will enable the hospitality industry to develop certain contingency plans that will be crucial for mitigating the effects of the virus on the hospitality industry. Furthermore, with the current pandemic situation of COVID-19, the research will be essential in providing relevant data and recommendations that a country can take to avoid the impact of medical viruses specific to the tourism and hospitality industry.
A study by Grand (2016) mentions that airlines, cruises, and hotels are some of the industries that face repercussions associated with an outbreak of a virus. Furthermore, the cancellation of public events, trips, income downfall, and unemployment have already caused a global impact on the economies and organisations. A study by Fernandes (2020) mentions that majority of the tourism companies are cancelling their trips for arrival and departure which causes a severe negative impact on the tourism and hospitality industry. Cancellation of employee trips to nations that are affected by the virus can lead to unemployment in the tourism industry and a negative economic impact on the GDP of the country affected by the virus. The pandemic of COVID-19 is estimated to create a risk for 50 million jobs in the sector of tourism and travel (McKibbin and Fernando, 2020). Furthermore, it is estimated that the travel and hospitality industry in Asia will be most affected due to the virus. According to the study of Bai et al. (2020), the effects of viruses that are pandemic are often unknown but can be aggravated by a lack of restrictive measures. The lack of effective measures in the travel and tourism industry can cause a negative economic impact on the GDP of a country.
The policies created by the US to counter the effects of the virus on their travel and hospitality industry are considered generic and ineffective which would result in complicated travelling for the medical experts and transferring of medical supplies. A study by Mehmood, Ahmad and Khan (2016) mentions that more than 850,000 people and tourists travel every month from Europe to the US. Therefore, ineffective travelling measures in case of a virus outbreak would lead to a disastrous situation for the countries and the economy. However, the study by Barrios and Hochberg (2020) mentions that unemployment due to viruses can become a major factor in the downfall of the tourism and hospitality industry. According to the study by McKibbin and Fernando (2020), the transport revenues related to airlines are also estimated to be reduced to 5% which is a significant loss in the travel industry. Furthermore, with the significant losses in the stock market, major airlines have suffered from collapse, and hotel operators specific to the regions of Asia, Europe, and America are also facing significant losses.
COVID-19 has trembled and agitated the world tourism industry, with the forced cancellation of bookings of large hotel chains and cancellation of travelling reservations (McKibbin and Fernando, 2020). The tourism and hospitality industry is facing severe impacts and threats such as global health alarm, shortage of travelling means, bankrupt airlines and hotel operators, economic crashes, and political instability (Gangopadhyaya and Garrett, 2020). Therefore, due to such factors the tourism and hospitality industry can face a global reduction in the future.
A systematic manner in which the research is carried out is known as research philosophy. Interpretivist research philosophy will be appropriate for the current study to comprehend how viruses are affecting the tourism and hospitality industry. This research approach integrates the human interest and is based on the naturalistic approach for data collection such as observations or interviews (Pham, 2018). Moreover, interpretive research philosophy will be beneficial for the study as the data here will be collected through qualitative sources by gaining insights and experience of individuals. According to Pham (2018), interpretivism research philosophy is about viewing the experiences of the world in diverse ways through different cultures and contexts to avoid bias; it focuses on the research aim by addressing the knowledge based on social reality. Therefore, it will be used in the research to investigate the multiple views regarding the impact of viruses on the industry and the challenges they are facing based on internal and external changes in the world.
Two broad areas of scientific research are qualitative and quantitative methods. In this research, the qualitative research method will be used for the analysis of the effects of the virus on the tourism and hospitality industry and to assess the potential factors pertinent to it. Qualitative research design is effective for this research because it focuses on the understanding of the research objectives with an idealistic and humanistic approach (Silverman, 2016). Furthermore, it is used to analyse and understand the belief, attitudes, interactions and experiences of people in the specific research domain. The data is non-numeric here and enhances the research by the human views. Additionally, qualitative research creates the best useful and insightful conceptual evaluation of the aspects of the aim of the study from multiple perspectives (Yeomans, 2017).
The method for data collection in this research will be primary which is known as a first-hand method. Primary data will be used for performing the research through qualitative research design which is effective as it resolves the specific issues and allows the researcher to be the owner of the collected data. Furthermore, primary data provides a higher level of control, better accuracy and up-to-date information from various views and is known as one of the most authentic methods of research (Driscoll, 2011). In the current study, the primary data will be collected through interviews in which the questions will be open-ended on the particular issue of the effects of the virus on the tourism and hospitality industry in the UK to get the clear concepts and reliable aspects of the research topic. These will be face-to-face interviews as it provides a distinct advantage to the researcher to gain information with the participants in a cooperative manner (Gill et al., 2008). Moreover, for the conduct of the interviews, the participant's data will be kept confidential and they will be allowed to respond only to the question they want to maintain the ethical considerations for the research.
The non-probability sampling technique will be used in this research for conducting the interviews for primary data collection. The sample size for the current study will be 30 respondents who are related to the hospitality or tourism industry or individuals to understand their view towards travelling in the UK where it is majorly affected.
Dissertation Proposal Lays Down the Outline of Your Final Dissertation
Get a Dissertation Proposal that matches your requirements, which includes the topic title, research aim and objective, research questions, research gap, literature review, methodology and list of reference papers.
The Dissertation Proposal will be foundation of your final dissertation. It is very important to get this done perfectly to avoid any problems!
Data analysis is to construct the information to discover news themes and issues of the research. The primary data will be analyzed through the tool thematic analysis. The technique of thematic analysis will be effective for the current study as it assesses the overall understating of the multiple themes that emerge from the primary qualitative data and examine the critical findings for the research aim and objectives (Clarke, Braun, and Hayfield, 2015). Additionally, it provides a broader understanding of the study by critical analysis through literature studies and responses to the interviews to provide an authentic and valid answer to the research questions. Moreover, according to Clarke, Braun, and Hayfield (2015), thematic analysis is a tool for analyzing primary data with flexibility and permits the researcher to grow by deducing the multiple views and presenting the appropriate interpretation of themes.
The topic of this study is new in the field of research as the identification of the coronavirus is known for the last few months. Although, there is information regarding the challenges faced by the tourism and hospitality industry due to the virus
as the study is focusing on COVID-19 there will be certain limitations in collecting the data for the research. Furthermore, the respondents may not be able to clearly understand the interview questions and purpose for the research and not answer the questions honestly this can be a limitation for this research too.
Bai, Y., Yao, L., Wei, T., Tian, F., Jin, D.Y., Chen, L. and Wang, M., 2020. Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19. Jama.
Barrios, J.M. and Hochberg, Y.V., 2020. Risk perception through the lens of politics in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. University of Chicago, Becker Friedman Institute for Economics Working Paper, (2020-32).
Carroll, M.W., Matthews, D.A., Hiscox, J.A., Elmore, M.J., Pollakis, G., Rambaut, A., Hewson, R., García-Dorival, I., Bore, J.A., Koundouno, R. and Abdellati, S., 2015. Temporal and spatial analysis of the 2014–2015 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa. Nature, 524(7563), pp.97-101.
Chinazzi, M., Davis, J.T., Ajelli, M., Gioannini, C., Litvinova, M., Merler, S., y Piontti, A.P., Mu, K., Rossi, L., Sun, K. and Viboud, C., 2020. The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Science.
Clarke, V., Braun, V. and Hayfield, N., 2015. Thematic analysis. Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods, pp.222-248.
Driscoll, D.L., 2011. Introduction to primary research: Observations, surveys, and interviews. Writing spaces: Readings on writing, 2, pp.153-174.
Fernandes, N., 2020. Economic effects of coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) on the world economy. Available at SSRN 3557504.
Gangopadhyaya, A. and Garrett, A.B., 2020. Unemployment, Health Insurance, and the COVID-19 Recession. Health Insurance, and the COVID-19 Recession (April 1, 2020).
Gill, P., Stewart, K., Treasure, E. and Chadwick, B., 2008. Methods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups. British dental journal, 204(6), pp.291-295.
Grand, M., 2016. Forecasting the Potential Impact Viral Outbreaks will Have on the United States Tourism Industry. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management, 4(1), pp.1-13.
Honerkamp, Y., 2020. Coronavirus impact/Job losses may be seen in retail, hospitality, travel sectors [Summary].
Hoque, A., Shikha, F.A., Hasanat, M.W., Arif, I. and Hamid, A.B.A., 2020. The Effect of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in the Tourism Industry in China. Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 3(1).
Liu, B., Pennington-Gray, L. and Krieger, J., 2016. Tourism crisis management: Can the Extended Parallel Process Model be used to understand crisis responses in the cruise industry?. Tourism Management, 55, pp.310-321.
McKibbin, W.J. and Fernando, R., 2020. The global macroeconomic impacts of COVID-19: Seven scenarios.
Mehmood, S., Ahmad, Z. and Khan, A.A., 2016. Dynamic relationships between tourist arrivals, immigrants, and crimes in the United States. Tourism Management, 54, pp.383-392.
Nokso-Koivisto, J., Marom, T. and Chonmaitree, T., 2015. Importance of viruses in acute otitis media. Current opinion in pediatrics, 27(1), p.110.
Pham, L.T.M., 2018. A Review of Key Paradigms: Positivism. Interpretivism & Critical Inquiry, School of Education, The University of Adelaide.
Ramelli, S. and Wagner, A.F., 2020. Feverish stock price reactions to covid-19.
Silverman, D., 2016. Introducing qualitative research. Qualitative research, pp.3-14.
Wang, J., Qi, H., Bao, L., Li, F. and Shi, Y., 2020. A contingency plan for the management of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in neonatal intensive care units. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 4(4), pp.258-259.
Yeomans, L., 2017. Qualitative methods in business research.