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The process of setting and achieving goals is known as management which is carried out through some functions in any firm. However, the ability to make other people follow you and the ability to influence other people or guide them is known as leadership (Popovici, 2012). Moreover, leadership and management are viewed differently by different people some consider these two synonymous terms whereas some identify them as two very distinct functions (Algahtani, 2014).
London School of Contemporary Arts (LCCA) is a multi-arts management studies college and is part of the LSBF (London School of Business and Finance) Group. LCCA was found by Aaron Etingen and Sagi Hartov and is located in Holborn, London (BAC, 2019). LCCA provides professional development and vocational training in several art-related areas, offers work placement options, one-to-one sessions with people working in the fashion industry, and post-graduate and undergraduate degrees validated and delivered by different European and UK institutions. It offers courses in Design and Fashion, Graphics and Multimedia, Photography and Moving Image, and Creative Arts Management (BAC, 2019).
The enhancement of strategy to achieve coordination that yields to be effective for any firm is management (Fernie and Sparks, 2014). The managers are required to achieve short term goals without any inclusions of risks to improve the efficiency of the firm by establishing standardisation. Effective managers are required to have three foremost skills that are human, technical and conceptual (Algahtani, 2014). For example, in LCCA, the manager is responsible to maintain the day to day tasks within their deadlines, manage the budgets, classes and timetables, direct teachers in an efficient manner to obtain certain objectives for the successful results of the students of the college. Moreover, the role of managers in LCCA includes working with staff to promote target delivery in terms of teaching observations and developing quality learning and teaching, participating and coordinating, reviewing records, ensuring improvement plans are developed, maintaining consistency to ensure high-quality assessment strategies, assisting in the preparation of documentation, ensuring action plans are being established, working with external partners for the development of new curriculum and promoting employability for graduates (BAC, 2019).
Leadership is identified as a practical approach that encompasses the organisation’s ability by providing leading criteria by guiding and motivating employees such that they achieve goals set for the particular firm to attain smooth success for any business. The direction is provided by the leader to the followers to have some critical qualities including vision, toughness, integrity, trust, commitment, decisiveness, selflessness, risk-taking and creativity (Popovici, 2012). In LCCA, a leader is transformational and aims to reach long term goals by creating passion among employees to follow the vision of the college, take risks to achieve the most certain goals and also leader challenge the current status of the college by accomplishing new ideas (Nwagbara, 2010). Moreover, the role of leaders in LCCA includes offering academic leadership, giving inspiration to learners and faculty members including the promoting learning, teaching and meeting the needs of learners, converting the strategies into operational objectives and plans, and motivating the faculty members to deliver the operational plan and accomplish the targets set (BAC, 2019).
Managers and leaders are two different authoritative heads in any organisation and the biggest difference between them is the way they follow to inspire their teammates, it can be stated that managers direct their subordinates whereas leaders direct their followers (Prudzienica and Mlodzinska-Granek, 2014). Managers have a team and their task is to make their team fulfil their assigned tasks, alternatively, a leader is someone who is followed by the entire firm it can be said that it is a voluntary activity. However, leaders are needed to grasp the knowledge regarding essential facts and forces to determine or follow the past and present trends of the business and to these trends, they evaluate the future trend by generating a strategy and vision (Algahtani, 2014).
In LCCA, the functions of a manager are related to leading quality, standards improvement and monitoring quality compliance along with recognising curriculum establishment prospects to increase the efficiency of LCCA. The functions of managers also include implementing improvement strategies based on external feedback for each programme and overviewing that internal reviews are effective and being carried out. Moreover, overviewing the quality management of provision and establishing a quality enhancement and improvement plan based on data received from subject specialities, external verifiers, internal student satisfaction surveys and awarding bodies (BAC, 2019). The role of a leader in LCCA includes indulging in development, research and/or scholarly activities, and participating in collaborative and institutional research or/and engaging with external commercial organisations and institutions. The role of a leader at LCCA also includes developing new programmes, collaborating with business community members to enhance programmes and offering students access to internships and guest lectures. (BAC, 2019).
There can be varied situations in which an organisation’s effectiveness can be identified such as a stable situation in which the organisation is not prone to any further changes all they need is to maintain the firm’s stability (Samantara and Sharma, 2015). For example, LCCA can maintain stability if the financial condition of the college is sustained, and revenue can be enhanced by increasing enrolment, changes in programme offerings, increasing recruitment, increasing grants, scholarships and gift money to reduce reliance on fees (Chopp, Frost and Weiss, 2016). Furthermore, the situation can be slow to moderate, this can be a changing scenario for LCCA and can affect the factors that moderated the college’s success such as if the birth rate declines, financial conditions decline, debt increases, the number of students declines, budget is not controlled, fundraising is not being done; all these changing situations can affect the college’s effectiveness and success results. At last, when the situation is at a fast pace these conditions can drive fluctuations for LCCA (Fernie and Sparks, 2014).
The type of situational leadership which includes ‘hands-on’ involvement in an employee’s work performance is known as leadership by coaching. As LCCA focuses on its student’s achievements, this leadership style can be adopted by managers to cultivate students for the future (Beaver, 2011). A coaching manager can connect with students to assist them in learning personal ambitions and offer them feedback regularly while working with the students in activities toward those ambitions. This leadership style can be effective for LCCA when its students are motivated and the primary aim is to enhance the performance of students by increasing their capabilities (Beaver, 2011).
The directing leadership style is associated with such situations that are challenging and require the application of scientific knowledge and experience (McCleskey, 2014). For example, in LCCA when recruits are included in the organization management or faculty then this style is adopted in directing employee’s activities to obtain the college’s goal and vision that motivates influences, and inspires them. This leadership style can assist LCCA in maintaining compliance. Often, force, power, or persuasion is utilized to lead others in this leadership style. The managers at LCCA can reduce the fear of students by providing them with clear directions in urgent situations and can directly influence their students’ achievements and their community involvement, learning as this leadership style is a top-down approach to management (Beaver, 2011).
This style of leadership involves the worker's responsibility more than the manager as in delegating leadership the workers are only provided with the direction or guidance required by the managers. LCCA’s managers can follow a delegation leadership style for the professional development of their students and the job performance of their faculty (Asgari, 2014). This can encourage the faculty of LCCA to give feedback and psychologically empower them by identifying the right assignments, keeping in mind the organizational expectations, recruiting the right individuals, providing the right direction to the faculty members, and supporting their performance through supervision and problem-solving (Asgari, 2014). It can assist LCCA in highlighting the expertise of its faculty members and promoting workplace satisfaction.
This is a type of leadership in which the leaders allow the employee to be more participative in the decision-making process for any business strategy as this brings motivation to employees and they feel supported and ultimately work better for the organization (Ibrahim, Alkhawlani and Al-shaghdari, 2017). LCCA adopted this leadership style to increase productivity and maximization the successful results of the college students by being supportive of the teachers and the students. (Antonakis and Robert, 2013). This leadership style can be practiced by managers of LCCA for encouraging their faculty member’s teamwork, displaying commitment to them by providing training and exchanging dialogues with them, displaying concern, respect, and trust by being understanding and considerate, informative, and sympathetic. Moreover, by adopting this leadership style, managers can give support to their faculty members until the completion of the task and until they are skilled enough to handle assignments with minimal supervision, and can assist them in their development (Khalid et al., 2012).
According to Peck and Dickinson (2008), an organization’s leadership and management are effective when leaders are transformational while managers are transactional. LCCA follows leadership and management skills to progress further and that is why the college always tries to bring change in their educational curricula by promoting new talents and polishing their skills and making them able to get good jobs in the market (Popovici, 2012). As far as LCCA is concerned, its leaders and managers have applied the principle of transformational leadership as the college has sustained its vision, considered a logical simulation of its members, and has considered its members individually (Muthiani, 2019; Rautiola, 2009). This leadership style has increased the value of the college and its members and has motivated them to go above self-interest (Muthiani, 2019; Rautiola, 2009) to embrace the college’s goals. The success of LCCA is due to the transformational leadership style. Moreover, a creative leadership style is a transformational process in which people use their potential and creativity to realize the goals of the firm (Sohmen, 2015). This leadership style has assisted in identifying three attributes for the college that are: creativity, clarity, and empathy which are broadly recognized as leadership values and play a key role in development, in availing world-class expertise and increasing connections, networking, and interaction among members belonging from different backgrounds (Sohmen, 2015).
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The focus on the best action depending upon the specific situational variables is known as situational leadership theory. For example, in LCCA when there is any certain conflict in roles, team, and responsibilities of the team members, applying situational theory effectively results in solving the conflict as these leadership styles deal with challenges that arise within a firm. Effective situational leaders in LCCA scan the situation and with the proper gain of knowledge respond to the particular situation in the most effective way (McCleskey, 2014). Based on the relationship between leaders and followers, situational leadership can enhance successful collaboration among faculty members, adaptability to fit in situations, enhance work productivity, faculty motivation and development, assist in assessing maturity levels of individuals, encourage support, provision of guidance and direction, assist in countering uncertainty, volatility, complexity, ambiguity, effectively respond to situations and control possible outcomes in LCCA (Thompson and Glasø, 2015).
This theory is closely linked with situational theory and it depends upon the environmental variables (Bhuyan, 2019). It determines the way any situation should be led however, there is a strong correlation between situational and contingency theory, there is one difference that a class of behavioral theory is referred to as contingency theory which depends upon the internal and external factors of a firm (Nwagbara, 2010; Ivanov et. al., 2017). In LCCA, the leader guides his subordinates as to how to act in a particular situation when there is a need to make a common decision (McCleskey, 2014). Contingency theory of leadership can display if a leader’s leadership style matches the situations (Fiedler, 2015) in LCCA as the work environment, faculty members and the culture in LCCA can impact a leader’s or manager’s success in the process of leadership (Fiedler, 2015).
System leadership theory focuses on results and does not rely upon the steps that are taken to attain achievement in certain activities i.e. results are planned earlier and later they are compared with the actual outcomes. In LCCA, the system leadership style of leaders and managers can facilitate the situations in which its members can advance towards social change (Senge, Hamilton, and Kania, 2015). This leadership style can introduce the ability to see a larger system, generative conversations, foster reflection and shift the overall focus from problem-solving to co-creating a future by engaging, energizing, committing, acting with accountability, reviewing, revising, and learning (Senge, Hamilton, and Kania, 2015) in LCCA.
In addition, the gaps in system theory are fulfilled by contingency theory, however, the main difference is that system theory considers internal factors as an essential characteristic for the firm whereas the contingency theory deals with the external determinants and further it works for the remedies of any crucial situations (Nwagbara, 2010).
Strengths and Weaknesses of Different Approaches to Situations within the Work Environment
The prominent theories of leadership are situational theory, behavioral theory, and trait theory (Nawaz and Khan, 2016). Trait theory examines what makes a leader successful depending upon its qualities such as innate and acquirable qualities. The trait theory is simple however the theory is criticized for providing no clear results (Sethuraman and Suresh, 2014).
In comparison to trait theory behavioral theory is emphasized as an effective theory to explain the role of the behavior of strong leadership (Nawaz and Khan, 2016). The behavior is affected by goals, leaders, followers, and the environment. Therefore, the difference between these two theories is that behavioral theory examines the particular trait of the leader. This is more effective than trait theory but suffers from a drawback that is the time factor and it does not result positively in every situation (Nawaz and Khan, 2016).
Whereas, situational leadership is surrounded by these essential factors and is better than the behavioral theory. It is the most essential theory of leadership as it determines how the leadership behaviors should vary with multiple situational variables (Thompson and Glasø, 2015).
The report is an analysis of the role of managers and leaders and how these roles differ in an organizational context. Leaders in LCCA follow the transformational leadership style by adopting appropriate strategies to enhance the practice of management by achieving targets and gaining competitive advantages as compared to other colleges. Moreover, managers have subordinates and they direct their actions to make effective decisions.
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